Introduction to soil remediation technology


      As the harmful substances in petroleum, pesticides and municipal waste are deeply penetrated into the soil and even in the groundwater, soil pollution has become a common environmental concern all over the world. There are two methods for controlling soils: in-situ repair and ex-situ repair. The ex-situ repair includes excavating and transporting the soil, which destroy the original soil structure and it is difficult to control the heavily polluted areas. In addition, for a large area of ​​contaminated soil, ex-situ repair has to excavate a large amount of soil for treatment requiring high construction cost. On this occasion, it is more suitable to use in situ repair technology.

     The in-situ repair technology has the advantages of low cost, high decomposition rate, no secondary pollution and simple operation.

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In-situ bioremediation technology


      In situ bioremediation technology treats contaminated soil in situ. During the treatment, the soil is not substantially agitated and the most common in situ treatment is biodegradation of the water in the soil. In addition to the addition of nutrients, oxygen sources (mostly H2O2), the ability to introduce microorganisms to enhance biodegradation is also required. Sometimes, digging a set of wells in the contaminated area and injecting the appropriate solution directly, the microorganisms in the water can be introduced into the soil.  

      The technique relies on the characteristics of the repaired object (such as permeability, porosity, etc.), the nature of the contaminant, the amount of oxygen, the pH, the nutrient content, the number of degradable organisms, and so on.

      In-situ bioremediation is actually the process of microbial degradation of organic matter, which generally has three types: aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration and fermentation. In general, contaminated soil is treated with aerobic treatment. The reasons are that: (1) the aerobic system degrades much faster than the anaerobic system (2) the anaerobic system needs to isolate from the air. It is difficult to achieve this condition for soil treatment, while aerobic systems do not have this special requirement. (3) The final products of the aerobic treatment system are CO2 and H2O, which are harmless to humans. While the products of the anaerobic system are CH4 and H2S, which cause new pollution to the environment. Under aerobic conditions, organic matter enters cells that degrade microorganisms and is degraded by assimilation which is a very complicated process. Simply put, it is:

Organic matter + microbe + O2+ nitrogen source -> CO2 + H2O + by-product + cell body

Ex-situ bioremediation technology


      Ectopic bioremediation technology mainly includes on-site treatment, prefabricated bed method, heap processing method, bioreactor and anaerobic biological treatment

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